Chad Forbes

Profile Picture of Chad Forbes
Associate Professor, Psychology; Associate Director FAU Brain Institute
Florida Atlantic University


  • PhD, University of Arizona

Research Interests

Situational Stress   Social Neuroscience Methodologies   Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience  

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Chad E. Forbes, Ph.D., is an associate professor of psychology in the Charles E. Schmidt College of Science and the Associate Director for the FAU Brain Institute. As a first generation college student, he earned his bachelor’s in Psychology (minors in Biology and Chemistry) from Long Beach State University, followed by his master’s and doctorate degree in psychology with emphases in social and cognitive neuroscience from the University of Arizona. Forbes also pursued postdoctoral training in the Cognitive Neuroscience Section at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. His research examines the tenets and dynamic modulation of self and identity as a function of biology, memory, context, and time. Specifically, Dr. Forbes employs a variety of methods, including brain-based measures targeting more non-conscious and affective psychological processes (e.g., EEG, fMRI, and genetics) and big data assessments targeting systemic societal factors (e.g., regional levels of bias, segregation, and diversity), to better understand how priming negative stereotypes associated with stigmatized individuals in our society, e.g. ethnic minorities and women, may ironically engender situations where these individuals inadvertently reinforce the stereotype. These situations of stereotype reinforcement ultimately can bias the way stigmatized individuals perceive themselves in certain domains and bias how others perceive them to adversely affect various behavioral and health outcomes among the stigmatized. More recently he has applied insight gleaned from this work towards establishing ways to change the structure and dynamics of classrooms and institutions in ways that optimizes learning contexts for all students. This work has resulted in a number of federally funded grants and publications in a variety of top-tier journals in the field, including Annual Reviews of Neuroscience, Cerebral Cortex, and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and recognition from the American Psychological Association as a “Rising Star” in psychology.


Contact Information

  Florida Atlantic University 213 Behavioral Sciences Boca Raton, FL 33431


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List of Publications (36)
In 2021

Liu, M., Backer, R. A., Amey, R. C., & Forbes, C. E. (2021). How the brain negotiates divergent executive processing demands: Evidence of network reorganization during fleeting brain states. NeuroImage.

Found on CV

Splan, E., & Forbes, C. E. (2021). Associations of Regional Racial Attitudes with Chronic Illness in the United States. Social Science & Medicine.

Found on CV

Splan, E., & Forbes, C. E. (2021). Fight or flight: The role of context on biased intergroup shooting behaviors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

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Liu, M., Backer, R. A., Amey, R. C., Splan, E. E., Magerman, A., & Forbes, C. E. (2021). Context matters: Situational stress impedes functional reorganization of intrinsic brain connectivity during problem solving. Cerebral Cortex, 31(4), 2111-2124.

Found on CV
In 2020

Olcaysoy Okten, I., Magerman, A.B., & Forbes, C.E. (2020). Behavioral and neural indices of trust formation in cross-race and same-race interactions. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics.

Found on CV
In 2019

Thornson, K. R., Forbes, C. E., Magerman, A. B., & West, T. V. (2019). Under threat but engaged: Stereotype threat leads women to engage with female but not male partners in math. Contemporary Educational Psychology.

Found on CV
In 2018

Forbes, C. E., Amey, R., Magerman, A. B., Duran, K., & Liu, M (2018). Stereotype-based stressors facilitate emotional memory neural network connectivity and encoding of negative information to degrade math self-perceptions among women. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.

Found on CV
In 2017

Liu, M., Amey, R., & Forbes, C. E (2017). On the role of situational stressors in the disruption of global neural network stability during problem solving. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29(12), 2037-2053.

Found on CV

Leitner, J.B., Ayduk, O., Mendoza-Denton, R., Magerman, A., Amey, R., Kross, E., & Forbes, C. E. (2017). Self-distancing Improves Interpersonal Perceptions and Behavior by Decreasing Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activity During the Provision of Criticism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.

Found on CV
In 2016

Schmader, T., & Forbes, C. E. (2016). Stereotype Threat: Revisiting Steele & Aronson (1995). In J. Smith & A. Haslam's Social Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies.

Found on CV

Amey, R., & Forbes, C. E. (2016). The Role of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Mechanisms in the Maintenance of the Self-Concept: A Behavioral and Neuroscience Review. In H. Cohen's Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science.

Found on CV
In 2015

Forbes, C. E., Duran, K. A., Leitner, J. B., & Magerman, A. (2015). Stereotype Threatening Contexts Enhance Encoding of Negative Feedback to Engender Underperformance and Anxiety. Social Cognition, 33(6), 605.

Found on CV
In 2014

Forbes, C. E., Leitner, J. B., Jordan, K., Magerman, A., Schmader, T., & Allen, J. J. B. (2014). Spontaneous default mode network phase locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.nsu145

Found on CV

Forbes, C. E., & Leitner, J. B. (2014). Stereotype threat engenders neural attentional bias towards negative feedback to undermine performance. Biological Psychology. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.007

Found on CV

Forbes, C. E. (2014). On social neuroscience methodologies and their applicability to group processes and intergroup relations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. DOI:10.1177/1368430214546070

Found on CV

Leitner, J. B., Hehman, E., Jones, J. M., & Forbes, C. E. (2014) Self-enhancement influences medial frontal cortex alpha power to social rejection feedback. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00645

Found on CV

Barbey, A. K., Colom, R., Paul, E. J., Forbes, C., Krueger, F., Goldman, D., & Grafman, J. H. (2014). Preservation of general intelligence following traumatic brain injury: Contributions of the met66 brain-derived neurotropic factor. PLoS One. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088733

Found on CV

Forbes, C. E., Poore, J. C., Barbey, A. K., Kreuger, F., Solomon, J., & Grafman, J (2014). The role of executive function and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in personality: A Systems Neuroscience Approach to Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Social Neuroscience. DOI:10.1080/17470919.2013.871333

Found on CV

Leitner, J. B., & Forbes, C. E. (2014). The role of implicit mechanisms in buffering self-esteem from social threats. In Z Jin's (Ed.) Exploring Implicit Cognition: Learning, Memory and Social-Cognitive Processes. Information Science Publishing: Hershey PA.

Found on CV

Magerman, A., Forbes, C. E., Splan, E., & Duran-Jordan, K. (2014). Social knowledge. In Toga, A.W., & Poldrack, R.A.'s (Ed.) Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference. Elsevier: Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Found on CV
In 2013

Forbes, C. E., & Grafman, J. (2013). Social neuroscience: The second phase. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00020. (Article featured on Frontiers home page).

Found on CV

Forbes, C. E., & Grafman, J. (2013). Brains, genes, and the foundations of human society. Frontiers Research Topic Ebook.

Found on CV
In 2012

Forbes, C.E., Cameron, K. A., Grafman, J., Barbey, A. K., Solomon, J., Ritter, W., & Ruchkin, D. (2012). Identifying temporal and causal contributions of neural processes underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00320.

Found on CV

Forbes, C. E., Poore, J. C., Barbey, A. K., Krueger, F., Solomon, J., Lipsky, R. H., Hodgkinson, C. A., Goldman, D. & Grafman, J. (2012). BDNF polymorphism-dependent OFC and DLPFC plasticity differentially moderates implicit and explicit bias. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 2602-2609.

Found on CV

Forbes, C. E., Cox, C., Schmader, T. & Ryan, L. (2012). Negative stereotype activation alters interaction between neural correlates of arousal, inhibition and cognitive control. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 771-781.

Found on CV

Barbey, A. K., Solomon, J., Colom, R., Krueger, F., Forbes, C., & Grafman, J. (2012). An integrative architecture for general intelligence and executive function revealed by lesion mapping. Brain, 135, 1154-1164.

Found on CV
In 2011

Forbes, C. E., Poore. J.C., & Grafman, J. (2011). Contributions of the Prefrontal Cortex to Social Cognition and Moral Judgment Processes. In R. P. Ebstien, S. Shamay-Tsoory & S. H. Chew, From DNA to Social Cognition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Found on CV
In 2010

Forbes, C. E., & Schmader, T. (2010). Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to

Found on CV

Forbes, C. E., & Grafman, J. (2010). The Role of the Human Prefrontal Cortex in Social Cognition and Moral Judgment. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 33, 299- 324.

Found on CV
In 2009

Schmader, T., Forbes, C. E., Zhang, S., & Mendes, W. B. (2009). A meta-cognitive perspective on the cognitive deficits experienced in intellectually threatening environments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 584-596.

Found on CV

Zhang, S., Schmader, T. & Forbes, C. E. (2009). The effects of gender stereotypes on women's career choice: Opening the glass door. In M. Barreto, M. K. Ryan, and M. T. Schmitt's (Eds.) The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century: Understanding Barriers to Gender Equality. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Found on CV
In 2008

Forbes, C. E., Schmader, T., & Allen, J. J. B. (2008). The role of devaluing and discounting in performance monitoring: A neurophysiological study of minorities under threat. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 253-261.

Found on CV

Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychological Review, 115, 336-356.

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In 2005

Ben-Zeev, T, Duncan, S., & Forbes, C. E. (2005). Stereotypes and Math Performance. In J. Campbell's (Ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Cognition. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

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In 2003

Xiao, J. H., Ghosn, C., Hinchman, C., Forbes, C., Wang, J., Snider, N., Cordrey, A., Zhao, Y., & Chandraratna, R. A. S. (2003). Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) - independent regulation of b-catenin degradation via a retinoid x receptor-mediated pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, 29954-29962.

Found on CV

Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 740-754.

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