Steven A Walton

Profile Picture of Steven A Walton
Assistant Professor of History
Department of Social Sciences
Michigan Technological University


  • PhD, History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University of Toronto
  • MA, History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University of Toronto
  • MS, Mechanical Engineering, California Institute of Technology
  • BS, Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University

Research Interests

History of Science   History of Technology   Military History  

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Contact Information

  Dept. of Social Sciences, 224 AOB Michigan Tech University Houghton, MI 49931


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List of Publications (120)
In 2013

"Proto-Scientific Revolution or Cookbook Science? Early gunnery manuals in the craft treatise tradition" in Ricardo Cordoba (ed.), Craft Treatises and Handbooks: The dissemination of technical knowledge in the Middle Ages, De Diversis Artibus 91 (Brepols, 2013), pp. ???. [due out in March].

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In 2012

"'My works will be the best in America': Peter Townsend's Cannon Foundry, 1815-25," New York State Museum Record, special issue on "Iron in the Hudson Valley," ed. Marty Pickands, forthcoming 2012.

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Supervisory Roles Member of Graduate Faculty, Pennsylvania State University, 2008-2012

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Denis De Lucca, Jesuits and Fortifications: The Contribution of the Jesuits to Military Architecture in the Baroque Age History of Warfare 73 (Leiden: Brill, 2012), under review for De Re Mililtari, online at .

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Member of Graduate Faculty, Michigan Technological University, 2000-2002; 2012-present.

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"What is Straight Cannot Fall: Medieval Architectural Statics in Theory and Practice," [with Thomas E. Boothby], submitted to History of Science, Feb. 2012.

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Serafina Cuomo, Technology and Culture in Greek and Roman Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), Annals of Science 69.2 (2012): 295-297.

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In 2011

"The Circumstanciae of Gunnery Manuals: Didactic Recipes, Ingredients, and Readers," in Trebuchet to Cannon: Medieval Military Technology, 1200-1600, ed. by Robert D. Smith and Steven A. Walton (Danish Medieval Centre, 2011) - submitted January 2011.

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Pamela O. Long, Artisan/Practitioners and the Rise of the New Sciences, 1400-1600 (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2011), Aestimatio. [submitted March 2013]

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Anthony Gerbino and Stephen Johnston, Compass and Rule: Architecture as Mathematical Practice (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009), in the British Journal for the History of Science 44.2 (2011): 287-289.

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Chandra Mukerji, Impossible Engineering: Technology and Territoriality on the Canal du Midi (Princeton University Press, 2009), Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews 40 (2011): 210- 211.

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Ursula Klein and E. C. Spary (eds.), Materials and Expertise in Early Modern Europe: Between Market and Laboratory (University of Chicago Press, 2010), Centaurus 53.3 (2011): 236-37.

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In 2010

"Industrial Archaeology in North America: Current Activities and Future Prospects," 3rd International Conference on Industrial Heritage. Motto: "Rijeka, the Historical Traffic Crossroad between Mediterranean and Europe", Rijeka (Croatia), 12.-13. Listopada [October] 2007 (Rijeka: Pro Torpedo, 2010), pp. 55-76. (With Patrick Martin and Scott See).

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"The Mystery of the Torpedo", ICOMAM Magazine 6 (Oct. 2010): 30-31.

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Entries for "Tools" (600), "Instruments" (600), "Lapidaries" (50), "Equitorium" (50), "Quadrant" (100), and "Surveying" (250) in the Dictionary of the Middle Ages (Oxford, 2010).

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Jonathan Sawday, Engines of the Imagination: Renaissance Culture and the Rise of the Machine (Routledge, 2007), in Isis 101.1 (2010): 207-208.

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"State Building through Building for the State: domestic and foreign expertise in Tudor fortifications," essay for Eric Ash (ed.), Expertise and the Early Modern State, Osiris 25 (2010): 66-84.

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Layout Editor, AVISTA Forum Journal, 2006-2010.

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"The Early Years of the U.S. Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, Rhode Island," International Conference on Industrial Heritage. Motto: "Rijeka, the Historical Traffic Crossroad between Mediterranean and Europe", Rijeka (Croatia), 12.-13. Listopada [October] 2007 (Rijeka: Pro Torpedo, 2010), pp. 515-534.

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Webmaster: Science, Technology, & Society Program, PSU ( ), 2002-2010.

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In 2009

Robert Douglas Smith and Steven A. Walton, "Medieval Gunpowder Research Group Report no. 9: Firepots and Fire Arrows," (Nykbing Falster: Danish Medieval Centre, 2009). Online at <> "reCOGnition: Medieval Gearing from Vitruvius to Print," AVISTA Forum Journal 19.1/2 (2009): 28-41.

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"Founding a Foundry: the Diary of the Setting-Out of the West Point Foundry, 1817," IA: Industrial Archaeology 35.1/2 (2009 [2012]): 25-38.

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Ross Thomson, Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Innovation in the United States, 1790-1865 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009), IA: the Journal of the Society for Industrial Archaeology 35.1/2 (2009 [2012]): 124-25.

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Patrick M. Malone, Waterpower in Lowell: Engineering and Industry in Nineteenth-Century America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009), IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archaeology. [submitted March 2013]

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"The West Point Foundry in Larger Perspective," IA: Industrial Archaeology 35.1/2 (2009 [2012]): 9-13.

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J.P.D. Cooper, Thom Richardson, and Graeme Rimer (eds.), Henry VIII: Arms and the Man (Royal Armouries, 2009), for De Re Militari, online at [June 2010].

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In 2008

Field Editor (history of technology), ORB: On-Line Research Bibliography for Medievalists (www.the ), 2005-2008.

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Louis Ph.Sloos (ed.), Warfare and the Age of Printing: Catalogue of Early Printed Books from before 1801 in Dutch Military Collections (Leiden: Brill, 2008), for De Re Militari, online at [June 2010].

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Review Editor (history of science and technology and military history), TMR: The medieval Review ( ), 2006-2008.

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Chiara Frugoni, Books, Banks, Buttons and Other Inventions form the Middle Ages, trans. William McCuaig (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003) in Isis 99.1 (2008): 171.

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"Villard's Perpetuum Mobile," AVISTA Forum Journal 18.1/2 (2008): 24-30 and see also .

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Eric H. Ash, Power, Knowledge, and Expertise in Elizabethan England (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), in Early Science and Medicine, 13.4 (2008): 403-404.

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Brenda J. Buchanan, Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A Technological History (Burlington: Ashgate, 2006), in Isis 99.4 (2008): 812-813.

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In 2007

(Stockholm: Jernkontoret, 2004), in ICON: Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology 13 (2007 [2008]): 170-73.

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"Armour and Arms in American Museums" in Robert D. Smith (ed.), ICOMAM 50: Papers on Arms and Military History 1957-2007 (Leeds: Basiliscoe Press, 2007), pp. 52-77.

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"Hand-On Learning in the University: Oxymoron or Mandate?" IASTS conference, Baltimore, MD, 2-3 Feb. 2007 (Organizer: Roli Varma)

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"C.T. Currelly and the Origins of the Arms & Armour Collections at the Royal Ontario Museum" Journal of the History of Collections 19.1 (2007): 89-114.

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"Tilting at Windmills: The Promise and Peril of Campus Construction Projects," AVISTA Forum Journal 17.1/2 (2007): 50-53.

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In 2006

Brett D. Steele and Tamera Dorland (eds.), The Heirs of Archimedes: Science and the Art of War through the Age of Enlightenment, Dibner Studies in the History of Science 8 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005) in Technology & Culture 47.4 (2006): 828-830.

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Louis W. Potts and Stephen L. Nelson, Watkins Mill: Factory on the Farm (Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2004), in IA: Industrial Archaeology 32.2 (2006 [2008]): 70-71.

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"The Object of North American Armor Collections, c.1850-1914," in Acta of the 17th Conference of the International Committee of Museums and Collections of Arms and Military History, Organized under the theme "The Storyline in Arms and Military Museums" (Ottawa: National Defense, 2006), pp. 20-33.

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"Act Locally, Think (Inter)Nationally: the establishment of the WPF as a regional and national phenomena," Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology (CNEHA) annual meeting, Tarrytown, NY, October 20-22, 2006 (Organizers: Tim Scarlett and Elizabeth Norris).

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"What Did They Know and When Did They Know It? Scholastic Interpretations of Architectural Dynamics" [with Tom Boothby], 41st International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, 4-7 May 2006 (Organizer: general session)

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Barry Trinder, The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire, 3rd edition (Chichester: Philimore, 2000), in IA: Industrial Archaeology 32.1 (2006 [2008]): 84-86.

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"Scientists and Sailors: US Naval Torpedo Station research after the Civil War," Theme: The Social History of Military Technology, ICOHTEC, Leicester, England, 15-20 August, 2006

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"The Tower Gunners and the Artillery Company in the Artillery Garden before 1630," Journal of the Ordnance Society 18 (2006): 53-66.

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John Landers, The Field and the Forge: Population, Production, and Power in the Pre-industrial West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) in Technology & Culture 47.1 (2006): 179-80.

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Wolfgang Lefevre (ed.), Picturing Machines 1400-1700 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004) in Isis 97.1 (2006): 155-56.

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In 2005

"Mathematical Instruments and the Creation of the Scientific Military Gentleman," in Steven A. Walton (ed.), Instrumental in War: Science, Research, and Instruments Between Knowledge and the World, History of Warfare 28 (Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2005), pp. 17-46.

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The Journal of the Armour Research Society, vol.1 (2005), for De Re Militari, online at .

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"Mortice or Tenon: Medieval Woodworking in Craft Treatises," International Medieval Congress, Leeds, UK, 7-11 July 2005 (Organizer: Katherine C. Eagleton).

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"Getting Inside Military Mathematical Practitioners' Heads," International Union for the History and Philosophy of Science/Division of History of Science (IUHPS/DHS), Beijing, China, July 24-30, 2005 (Organizer: Lesley Cormack).

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Roger B. Manning, Swordsmen: The Martial Ethos of the Three Kingdoms (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) in Sixteenth Centuries Studies 36.4 (2005): 1200-1201.

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"The Impetus of Being Earnest: Aristotle, Ballistics, and Late Medieval Artillery," 40th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 5-8, 2005 (Organizer: Kelly DeVries)

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"Proto-Scientific Revolution or Cookbook Science? Early gunnery manuals in the craft treatise tradition," Craft Treatises and Handbooks: the Dissemination of Technical Knowledge in the Middle Ages, Cordoba, Spain, 6-8 October 2005 (Organizer: Ricardo Cordoba de la Llave).

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"The Military-Industrial-University Complex 80 Years too Early: The Naval Torpedo Station, 1869-1885," SHOT/HSS, Minneapolis, MN, 3-6 November 2005 (Organizer: open session).

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"C.T. Currelly and the Origins of Arms and Armor at the ROM/ The Object of North American Armor Collections, 1850-1914", ICOMAM, Ottawa, Canada, 11-14 June 2005.

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In 2004

Entries for John Bate (fl. 1630), John Robins (c1500-1558), John Muller (1699-1784), and Sir Robert Gordon (1647-1784) in the New Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004-5).

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"The Classification of Arms: Henry Percy's Ramist ideas of weaponry," Journal of the Arms and Armour Society 18.1 (2004): 25-39.

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Ranier Leng, Ars Belli; Deutsche taktische und kriegstechnichische Bilderhandschriften und Traktate im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert, 2 vols., Imagines Medii Aevi: Interdisziplinare Beitrage zur Mittelaleeterforschung Bd. 12 (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2002) in Technology & Culture 45.1 (2004): 168-170.

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"Review Essay: The Greeneian Reappraisal of the Context of Medieval Technology," AVISTA Forum Journal 14.1 (Fall 2004): 25-28.

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Pamela O. Long, Openness, Secrecy, Authorship : Technical Arts and the Culture of Knowledge from Antiquity to the Renaissance (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001) in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47.2 (2004): 310-12.

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Alan R. Williams, The Knight and the Blast Furnace: A History of the Metallurgy of Armour in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, History of Warfare vol. 12 (Leiden: Brill, 2003) in The Sixteenth Century Journal 35.3 (2004): 851-52.

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"Holy Dovetails!: St. Joseph and the Illustration of Medieval Woodworking," 39th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 6-9, 2004 (Organizer: Steven A. Walton).

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"Modeling Reality: Daniel Santbech's Triangular Trajectories," Sixteenth Century Studies Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 28-31 October 2004 (Organizer: Bruce Janacek)

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In 2003

"Scientific Instruments, Arms, and Warfare," Penn State HUDDLE with the Faculty, 1 Nov. 2003

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"Making a Hybrid Career between Science and the Humanities," WISE Scholars, Penn State University, 4 December 2003 (Organizers; Martin Pietrucha and Dean Snow)

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"Daniel Santbech's Aristotelian Ballistics, or, 'What was he thinking?!?'" History of Science Society (HSS) meeting, Cambridge, MA, 22-25 November 2003 (Organizer: Helen Hattab)

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"The Bayonet Poker (1908)," Journal of the Society of American Bayonet Collectors, 46 (Winter 2003): 17-20.

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"Learning to be a General: Henry Percy and Writing the Military Revolution," 38th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 8-11, 2003 (Organizer: Kelly DeVries).

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"'Better Living Through Mathematics': Thinking About Thinking About Early Modern Artillery", Re-inventing Early Modern Technologies, 24 January 2003, Ann Arbor, MI (Organizer: Sabiha Ahmed).

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"The Bishopsgate Artillery Garden and the First English Ordnance School," Journal of the Ordnance Society 15 (2003): 41-51

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In 2002

"Medieval Science, Technology and Health," contribution for World Eras, vol. 4: Medieval Europe (814-1350), ed. Jeremiah Hackett (Detroit: Gale, 2002), pp. 432-78 [with Bert S. Hall]

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Die Vielfalt der Dinge: Neue Wege zur Analyse mittelalterlicher Sachkulture, Forschungen des Institutes fur Realienkunde des Mittelalters und der Fruuhen Neuzeit, Diskussion und Materialen vol. 3 (Vienna: Osterrreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1998) and History of Medieval Life and the Sciences, Forschungen... vol. 4 (Vienna: 2000) in The Medieval Review, issue 03.10.09, online at < > Jean-Denis G.G. Lepage, Castles and Fortified Cities of Medieval Europe (Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland & Co. 2002) for De Re Militari .

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"Problems and Lessons from Medieval Technology Transfer," Penn State University, week-long visit, March 2002 (Organizer: Vickie Ziegler).

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Annual Meeting, Toronto, ON, 25 October 2002 (Organizer: Steven A. Walton; presider: Janis Langins).

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"Commentary: Distant Memories, Distant Wars," Society for Military History, Madison, WI, April 5-7, 2002 (Organizer: Jerry Cooper).

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"Considering the Ideas of Technology Transfer, with special reference to Medieval Architecture," International Medieval Congress, Leeds, UK, 8-11 July 2002 (Organizer: Robert Bork).

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"Elizabethan Gunners and their Machines: place and (em)placement," ICOHTEC conference, Granada, Spain, June 24-26, 2002 (Organizer: Brenda Buchanan).

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"The Gunner in Tudor Literature", 37th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 2-5, 2002 (Organizer: Kelly DeVries).

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In 2001

Robert Fox (ed.), Thomas Harriot: an Elizabethan Man of Science (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), in Isis 92.4 (2001): 781-2.

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"The Interesting Part of New Military Technology: Fireworks Ingredients and Recipes," 36th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 2001 (Organizer: Kelly DeVries).

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Research Director: imago HST image database 1999-2000 Research Assistant for Richard White, The Skule Story: History of Engineering at the University of Toronto, 1873-2000 (Toronto: 2001).

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"Theophrastus on Lyngurium - Medieval and Renaissance Lore from the Classical Lapidary Tradition," Annals of Science 58.4 (2001): 357-79.

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Nicholas Brooks, Warfare and Society 700-1400 (London: Hambledon, 2000), in Journal of Military History 65.3 (2001): 781-2.

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In 2000

Research Aid and HTML programming: UTMuSI Scientific Instrument Project, IHPST, University of Toronto, 1999-2000 ( ).

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Maurice Keen (ed.), Medieval Warfare: A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), in Technology & Culture 41.4 (2000): 836-837.

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"Thomas Hood and Armada Angst: How mathematical were the military sciences?", HSS/CSHPS/BSHS Joint Meeting, St. Louis, MO, August 2000 (Organizer: Steven A. Walton)

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"The Mathematical and Military Sciences in Renaissance England," Endeavour 24.4 (2000): 152- Thomas Harriot's Ballistics and English Renaissance Warfare, Durham Thomas Harriot Seminar Occasional Paper no. 30 (Durham, 1999).

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"What Medieval Technology has to Offer Penn State," with Bert S. Hall, Penn State University, 20 October 2000 (Organizer: Vickie Ziegler).

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"An Unnoticed Praise of Harriot's Contribution to Mathematics," The Harrioteer (Durham, UK), Sept. 2000, pp. 2-4.

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Technical Writing Tutor: Engineering Writing Center, U. of Toronto, 1998-2000.

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In 1999

Aid: Templeton Workshop in Science & Religion, Toronto, July 1998, 1999.

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(Greencastle, Ind.: Historic Bridge Books/James L. Cooper, 1997), in Technology & Culture, 40.3 (1999): 715-16.

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"Of Course Leather-Tanning is Scientific: the Rhetoric of Science in Engineering at the University of Toronto before the Depression," 11th Canadian Science and Technology Historical Association (CSTHA) Meeting, Kingston, Ontario, 2 October 1999 (Organizer: Alain Canuel)

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"Preserving the Past and Inventing the Future: Clues to Technology Transfer in Tudor Gunnery Manuals," 34th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, 8 May 1999

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Pinella Travaglia, Magic, Causality and Intentionality. The Doctrine of Rays in al-Kindi, Micrologus Library 3 (Firenze: Simsel, 1999) in The Medieval Review, issue 00.09.02, online at < /t/tmr/> James L. Cooper, Artistry and Ingenuity in Artificial Stone: Indiana's Concrete Bridges, 1900-1942

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In 1998

"The Integration of Artillery into Early Modern England: On the impetus and loci for technological change," Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, 17 October 1998 (presider: Terry Reynolds).

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Joel Kaye, Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century: Money, Market Exchange, and the Emergence of Scientific Thought (Cambridge, 1998) in The Medieval Review, issue 98.09.04, at Kelly DeVries)

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"Thomas Harriot's Ballistics and English Renaissance Warfare," The Thomas Harriot Seminar, Durham, England, 15 December 1998 (Organizer: G.R. Batho).

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In 1997

"To Baghdad with Pride: Dark Age Sword Trade Reconsidered," 32nd International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, 10 May 1997 (Organizer: Kelly DeVries).

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History of Science and Technology Journals cataloging: Iter Database Project, Centre for Renaissance and Reformation Studies, U. of Toronto, 1997-99.

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In 1996

Organizer: MEPHISTOS Graduate Conference, Toronto, February 1996.

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"'The Bell-Tower' and 'Die Automat': The Scientific Prehistory of Nineteenth Century Science Fiction," Science/Fiction and Popular Culture, York University, 1 November 1996 (presider: Geoff Bunn).

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President: HAPSAT Graduate Student Association, IHPST, 1996-97.

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In 1995

"Fascination, Fear, and Failure: Automata and Other Simulations of Life," Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History Colloquia Series, Washington, DC, 18 July 1995 (Organizer: Nancy Matthews).

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"Canadian Aesthetics of Early Reinforced Concrete," IA: the Journal of the Society for Industrial Archaeology 21 (1995): 1-14.

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"Tools in Service of the Lord: The Iconography of Medieval Woodworking and the Joseph the Carpenter," Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) Annual Meeting, Charlottesville, VA, 21 October 1995 (presider: Jonathan Coopersmith).

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"The Virtuousness of Technology: The Battle of Brunanburh and Anglo-Saxon Sword Manufacture," Technology & Culture, 36.4 (1995): 987-99.

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In 1994

"Clarence Richard Young and the Aesthetics of Early Reinforced Concrete," Society for Industrial Archaeology Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, 4 June 1994 (Organizer: E. Phyllis Rose).

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"The Fear and Failure of Technology: The Case of Enlightenment Automata," Ontario-Quebec Exchange, Toronto, Ontario, 28 October 1994 (Organizer: Janis Langins).

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Aid and Organizer: Society for Industrial Archaeology conference, Toronto, July 1994.

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In 1993

"An Introduction to the Mechanical Arts in the Middle Ages," 28th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 1993 (Organizer: W.T. Swejkowski).

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"Descartes' Parking Meter, or, what happens when a philosophical idea peters out," Workshop on the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life and Intelligence, Stanford University, 4-5

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"'The Very Model of an Early Modern Major General': the 9th Earl of Northumberland's scientific taxonomy of war materiel," Lords, soldiers and craftsmen: arms and armour in the London of Sir Henry Lee, 4th Armourers and Brasiers/Royal Armouries seminar, 22 Sept.

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Jan af Geijerstam, Landscapes of Technology Transfer: Swedish Ironmakers in India, 1860-1864

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"Technologies of Pow(d)er: Military Mathematical Practitioners' Strategies and Self- Presentation," in Lesley Cormack (ed.), Mathematical Practitioners and the Transformation of Natural Knowledge in Early Modern Europe, supposedly accepted by the University of Chicago Press.

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"Gunners and Personal Scientific Instruments," Society for the History of Technology (SHOT)

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"Perceptions of the Performance of Cannon Shot before 1700," Journal of the Ordnance Society 20

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"What Not To Do With Your Bayonet!" Journal of the Society of American Bayonet Collectors, 48

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